National action plans on microbial resistance

Countries develop and implement National Action Plans with respect to sustainable access to effective antibiotics, that are inclusive of civil society, local community views and based on situational analyses with ReAct’s support.


More than 85 percent of the world’s population live in countries that have either developed or is in the process of developing a National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance. Many countries now face the task of implementing their plans and securing the financing to do so. However, only very few of the published National Action Plans in low- and middle-income countries are based on a situational analysis. Such plans often have little connection to the realities on the ground and may also lack the necessary political support.

Without robust local data on the burden of resistance and without a clear picture of the most significant drivers of resistance, prioritization of where to spend scarce resources is difficult. Devising interventions is further complicated by overuse and underuse of antibiotics occuring in low- and middle-income countriesat the same time. Underuse of antibiotics continues to cost more lives than resistance, although this may change in the future. Solutions will therefore have to carefully balance the need to ensure access while reducing misuse.

How can ReAct achieve change?

As a network present in low- and middle-income countries, ReAct can engage and support key actors at the national level that are charged with developing and implementing National Action Plans.

As an international network, ReAct can directly engage global institutions and financing agencies that provide technical, financial and human resources.

As an organization based in various geographical contexts, ReAct can support broad grassroots mobilization and advocacy when government implementation lags behind, thereby serving as a ‘watch’ over particular public health priorities.

Through these complementary approaches, ReAct can support, mobilize and hold relevant actors accountable to ensure that countries develop and implement National Action Plans in a manner that is inclusive, promotes sustainable access to antibiotics and integrates civil society and community views.

What do we want to see?

Low- and middle-income countries apply a One Health approach and prioritize interventions that tackle the local drivers of antibiotic resistance while ensuring sustainable access.

Policy shaping international actors adopt the concept of ‘sustainable access’ as a guiding principle for their policies and interventions.

Civil society and social movements across health, agricultural, and environmental sectors are formally included in processes to develop and implement National Action Plans.


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