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Test your understanding by taking a short quiz. An answer key can be downloaded from the bottom of this page.

Q1. Why are new business models being explored for antibiotics? 

1. Higher profits of new antibiotics are needed to incentivise pharmaceutical companies to invest in research and development in this field.

2. Standard business models, which are based on increased profits with higher sales are often considered inappropriate for antibiotics because a high consumption will accelerate resistance development to the drug.


Q2. When was the newest antibiotic class available on the market discovered? 

1. In 1942

2. In 1987

3. In 2001


Q3. It has turned out to be more difficult to find new antibiotics for Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria. Why is that?

1. Gram-negative bacteria are more pathogenic than Gram-positive bacteria.

2. Antibiotics targeting Gram-negative bacteria are often more toxic than those active against Gram-positive bacteria.

3. Gram-negative have two bacterial membranes, which are difficult for the molecules to penetrate, whereas Gram-positive bacteria have only one membrane.


Q4. What does de-linkage mean in the context of business models for antibiotics? 

1. It means that profits are not directly linked to the sales volumes or the price of the products.

2. It means that antibiotics can be sold without a prescription of a doctor.

3. It means that researchers, companies and governmental institutions work independently on research and development of antibiotics.


Answer key