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Toolbox  –  Measure

Antibiotic resistance

Knowledge about antibiotic resistance levels in bacteria from both humans and animals and how common these bacteria are, is key to guide appropriate treatment of patients and animals, as well as for understanding the scale of the problem and address it appropriately.

Unfortunately, such data is missing from many parts of the world. This section provides data, information and tools on antibiotic resistance and how to measure antibiotic resistance patterns in bacteria from humans and animals.

Please note that it is useful to examine resistance in both humans and animals in parallel, to track resistance trends and detect for example emerging resistance or outbreaks. The table below collects resources with a cross-sectorial, or ‘One Health’ perspective. Also, several reports present integrated data from both humans and animals, and may therefore be found on all sub-pages.

Selected Resources

Resources Description
Integrated surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne bacteria: Application of a One Health approach Guide designed for WHO Member States that provides key information on planning and implementing a program for integrated surveillance of antimicrobial resistance.
ECDC, EFSA and EMA Joint Scientific Opinion on a list of outcome indicators as regards surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in humans and food-producing animals Indicators: Suggestion of outcome indicators with a ‘One Health’ perspective for monitoring progress of surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in humans and food-producing animals, with methodology for how indicators were selected, and examples of calculation of indicators. Established by European health and food safety agencies.
Protocol: a ‘One health’ two year follow-up, mixed methods study on antibiotic resistance, focusing children under 5 and their environment in rural India Protocol: A published protocol for studying antibiotic resistance in children and their environment.

Further reading