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Policy  –  Develop a national action plan

Elements of a national action plan

Which areas should be included in a national action plan?

This section gives suggestions of different policy areas that could be covered under a national action plan on antibiotic resistance. The below list gives a broad overview, however, is by no means exhaustive. Every country is unique and the content of a national action plan must be based on the context-specific needs.

Each element should include options for action across different sectors – addressing human, animal, plant and environmental perspectives when appropriate. Multi-sectorial action is necessary to limit the negative consequences of antibiotic use and resistance.

  • Awareness and understanding: the first strategic objective of the Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance zotpress.
  • Infection prevention and control: also highlighted in the Global Acton Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance, where one of the five strategic objectives is to reduce the incidence of infection through effective sanitation, hygiene and infection prevention measures.
  • Surveillance of antibiotic resistance: the Global Acton Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance calls for increasing the evidence base through surveillance and research.
  • Monitor antibiotic consumption: tracking antibiotic consumption within a country is an important component of a national action plan.
  • Rational use of antibiotics: strategic objective four of the Global Acton Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance advises to optimize the use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health.
  • Access: regulation for access without excess must be instituted worldwide and supported by strong political will and leadership.
  • Environmental considerations: to curb the development and spread of antibiotic resistance, national and local governments also have to consider actions to limit release and spread of antibiotics and resistant bacteria in the environment.
  • Gender mainstreaming: a strategy to enable equal opportunities, access and choices for women, men, girls and boys to ensure that, in all areas and at all levels throughout a project, men’s and women’s concerns and experiences form an integral part of the design, implementation, monitoring and learning.

See also:
Implement the plan, which covers more details and implementation of the possible policy areas outlined above.

Selected Resources

Resource Description
WHO AMR Community Exchange Platform Community of practice run by the WHO AMR Secretariat. The primary aim is to enable those developing and implementing national action plans to have access to advice, support and peer-to-peer discussions.
Building Coalitions for Containing Antimicrobial Resistance: A Guide Guide by SIAPS that offers guidance on how to formulate and implement a plan and evaluate outcomes. Also provides a number of templates and sample interview forms that can be adapted for different local contexts. An older version is available in Spanish and French.
Tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR) together. Working Paper 5.0: Enhancing the focus on gender and equity Working paper from the WHO to assist countries towards gender and equity considerations in antibiotic resistance work; informs the implementation of strategies in national action plans.