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Toolbox  –  Prevent infection

Food animals

Measures to prevent infections, such as biosecurity measures and use of vaccines, are among the most important tools to decrease antibiotic use in the animal sector without decreasing animal health, animal welfare and productivity. Also, infection prevention diminishes the risk for spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria between animals and between animals and humans.

To have basic routines for prevention and control of infectious diseases at farms, in veterinary practices and in other human – animal interactions thus plays a crucial role to decrease antibiotic use as well as the risk for spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Accurate information about biosecurity measures and data showing the cost – benefits of different measures are important to increase farmers’ motivation to adopt biosecurity measures. Already, there is an increasing number of reports demonstrating the economic benefit of applying disease prevention measures such as improved heard management, biosecurity and vaccination. In addition, these measures can lead to substantial reduction in antibiotic use, as shown in a study of pig farms, where antibiotic use decreased with 52% from birth to slaughter.

Foodborne diseases

Infection prevention efforts are also important to reduce the spread of zoonotic diseases through the food chain. The global burden of foodborne diseases is considerable, and particularly affects persons living in low-income areas. Also antibiotic resistant bacteria can spread via food, and ensuring food safety is an important component of efforts to limit the spread and effects of antibiotic resistance. Food safety has often been low on the political agenda. However, due to the growing evidence on the negative health effects of foodborne diseases, it is likely that food safety issues will receive more attention in the future. Improving food security is highlighted as one of the priority areas of the United Nations “Sustainable Development Goals”, to be achieved in 2030.

Work to improve infection prevention

There are no universal best practices for disease prevention at animal farms, in veterinary clinics or in other non-human settings, but there are a number of measures that can be taken to improve infection prevention and control and reduce antibiotic use in the non-human sector.

Set up a program discusses how to improve infection prevention at the farm and in veterinary clinics and provides resources to help in the process.

Interventions provides resources for infection prevention and control interventions in animal, veterinary and agricultural settings.

Selected Resources

Resource Description
CODEX ALIMENTARIUS: Codex Texts on Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance This document is part of the CODEX ALIMENTARIUS international food standards, guidelines and codes of practice for international food trade. The document compiles the 2 Codex guidelines “Code of Practice to Minimize and Contain Antimicrobial Resistance” and “Guidelines for risk analysis of foodborne antimicrobial resistance”. It provides guidance for the responsible and prudent use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals and for assessing risk to human health from foodborne antibiotic resistant bacteria as well as determining appropriate management strategies to control those risks. English, French and Spanish versions included.
CODEX ALIMENTARIUS international food standards (Code of Practice to Minimize and Contain Antimicrobial Resistance) The “Code of Practice to Minimize and Contain Antimicrobial Resistance”, ref no: CAC/RCP 61-2005 (see above), is also available in Arabic and Russian from the list of CODEX ALIMENTARIUS standards
Antibiotic Use in Food-Producing Animals Tracking and Reducing the Public Health Impact This website discusses the public health impact of antibiotic use in food-producing animals and what the CDC is doing to prevent antibiotic resistance in infections transmitted commonly by food.
Antibiotic resistance from the farm to the table Infographic from CDC that describe how antibiotic resistant bacteria can spread to humans via food and the consequences.