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Before starting an awareness raising initiative, it is important to get an understanding of the current situation to provide valuable input to what needs to be done.

Some questions that it can be good to investigate are as follows:

  • Are there any ongoing initiatives?
  • How have previous initiative been received?
  • Have previous initiatives been effective?
  • What efforts have been undertaken in other settings that could be applied to your context?
  • What level of awareness currently exists?
  • What perceptions do people have of the key concepts related to antibiotic resistance?

Knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and perceptions

Information about people’s knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and perceptions regarding antibiotic use and resistance can be helpful in the planning of awareness raising initiatives. It can provide a baseline for later evaluation and also inform on what level to base interventions. For more information on how to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviors see MEASURE: KABP.

How to set up a Knowledge, Attitude, Perception (KAP) study – Learning from the Stop TB Partnership

The World Health Organization published in collaboration with the Stop TB Partnership “a guide to developing knowledge, attitude and practice surveys for advocacy, communication and social mobilization for tuberculosis control”. This tool was designed to assist countries’ in collecting and utilizing data on knowledge, attitudes and practices to help them plan, implement and evaluate initiatives. The guide provides a theoretical framework, practical suggestions, and a handful of resources that could be useful in developing similar surveys for antibiotic resistance. A brief discussion of the steps follows:

  • Step 1, define the objectives: Always start with information that are already available and minimise duplication (Demographic Health Survey); Answer the question “what do you want to accomplish by the conducting the initiative?”; Be specific when defining your study population and sampling strategy
  • Step 2, develop the protocol: Your survey protocol and design should match the purpose of your survey; Identify an appropriate ethical review board
  • Step 3, design the questionnaire: Keep the questionnaire as short as possible; Phrase questions carefully and simple; Pre-test questionnaires to ensure that they are easily understood
  • Step 4, conduct the KAP study: Consider the number of interviewers and length of the interviews when calculating the duration of the overall survey period; practice the survey in a form of role-plays; All interviewers should have a mutual understanding of their role in quality control.
  • Step 5, analyse the data: identify errors that occurred during data entry before starting with the analysis; Use cross-tabulations to highlight differences between groups or categories of your survey
  • Step 6, use the data: Survey report should be understandable for layperson; Organise stakeholders’ meeting to disseminate results of the survey; Use data as evidence to influence design of health education campaigns (such as on antibiotic resistance) and choice of content for training health professionals.

Selected Resources

Resource Description
Building Coalitions for Containing Antimicrobial Resistance: A Guide This guide helps stakeholders organize collaborations to address the problem of antimicrobial resistance. The chapter “Understand the local situation” describes tools and strategies for compiling, analyzing, and presenting information about the resistance situation. Provides a number of useful templates and interview guides. An older version also available in Spanish and French.

Advocacy, communication and social mobilization for TB control: A guide to developing knowledge, attitude and practice surveys

This guide provides a theoretical framework, practical suggestions, and a handful of resources for conducting KAP studies for tuberculosis control, which can be useful in developing similar surveys for antibiotic resistance. Published by WHO in collaboration with the Stop TB Partnership.

Antibiotic resistance: Multi-country public awareness survey

This public awareness survey on the use of antibiotics and knowledge of antibiotic resistance was conducted in 12 countries in 2015, commissioned by the WHO. For inspiration to set up your own public awareness survey, see Annex 1 “full questionnaire” (p. 46 in report. Mix of online and face-to-face interviews).

Antimicrobial Resistance Module for Population-Based Survey (PDF)

This module generates household-level information on knowledge and behavior regarding antimicrobial medicines and raises awareness regarding resistance among communities.

Community Toolbox Chapter 3: Assessing Community Needs and Resources

Guide to identify and assess community concerns, needs, and assets.


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