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Toolbox  –  About the toolbox

How to use the Toolbox

The Toolbox is designed to be flexible. Depending on your time and resources it is up to you how in-depth you want to go. Choose to browse through and simply access resources or follow the step by step guidance on how to set up an initiative.

The Toolbox is divided into six focus areas that outlines actions that can be taken and provides supporting tools to help reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance. Focus areas are often interlinked and efforts undertaken in one area can complement efforts in another.

Overview of the Toolbox focus areas


Information and tools for increased knowledge about bacteria, antibiotics and antibiotic resistance, and an explanation of why antibiotic resistance has become one of the major health challenges of our time. Discusses why it is important to take action against this negative development and gives an introduction to possible ways to do so.


Overview of how to use effective communication, education and training to change behaviors and social norms within the area of antibiotic resistance. Further provides information, tools and educational materials that can be used in work to raise awareness about antibiotic resistance.


This focus area explains how to gather and manage data on antibiotic resistance and also provides links to existing information. Data is necessary to make informed decisions on antibiotic therapy as well as to influence policy and behavioral change. From collecting, analyzing and compiling data to the management and sharing of results, many steps are involved in the process. Efforts can range from small-scale interventions such as a knowledge and practice survey or point-prevalence study in particular ward of a health care facility, to large-scale initiatives such as setting up a national surveillance system.


Focuses on promoting the rational use of antibiotics to prevent and limit the spread of antibiotic resistance. Work to encourage the appropriate use of antibiotics can be done in a variety of settings and efforts can range from large scale initiatives such as implementing rational use programs in hospitals or public health campaigns in the community, to small scale interventions targeted at particular audiences.


Focuses on work to prevent and limit the spread of infection and consequently antibiotic resistance. Infection prevention and control is an essential component of all work to reduce antibiotic resistance and work must be carried out in all settings. Efforts can range from large scale initiatives such as implementing infection control programs in hospitals, or large public health campaigns in the community, to small scale interventions targeted at particular audiences.


This focus area explores the field of policy-making to address antibiotic resistance. It aims to serve as both a step-wise approach in developing and adopting national action plans, and as an observatory of already existing examples of political commitments on various levels.

Project management process

The success of any project depends on the manner in which it is planned, implemented and managed. Where appropriate and useful, the Toolbox promotes the use of a five-step project management process to help the user carry out work in a structured manner. While every setting is different, this process can be applied anywhere. However, specific strategies or interventions will need to be assessed and adapted to best fit the context.

When starting from scratch, it is best to begin with engaging stakeholders and continue on through the cycle outlined below. Ideally it is a cycle to continuously work though, but the Toolbox can also be used to pick and choose individual materials that best fit your needs.

Overview diagram of the five step project managment process described in the text
Figure 1. Five step project management cycle.