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Health care  –  Interventions

Infection specific interventions

Health care-associated infections are infections that patients acquire during the time of treatment for other conditions within a health care facility. Here you find infection-specific interventions to help prevent and reduce occurrence of such infections.

Common health care-associated infections are:

  • Surgical site infection (SSI)
  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)
  • Central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI)
  • Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)

Additional important infections include gastrointestinal infections and blood-borne infections. Health care-associated infections are often caused by resistant bacteria, are hard to treat, and lead to prolonged hospital stay and high mortality. It is very important to prevent these infections to save lives, reduce antibiotic use and thus limit the antibiotic pressure leading to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.

Below are selected resources describing how to prevent these infections (separated into different tables). In addition, many countries have their own guidelines that are adapted to the local circumstances. For additional information and resources to help determine the impact of interventions, go to MEASURE.

See also: Basic interventions and Pathogen specific interventions

Selected Resources

Surgical site infections (SSI)

Resource Description
Global guidelines on the prevention of surgical site infection Guideline. First global guidelines on the prevention of surgical site infections published by WHO. These new guidelines are valid for any country and suitable to local adaptations, and take account of the strength of available scientific evidence, the cost and resource implications, and patient values and preferences.
The ISID Guide to Infection Control in the Healthcare setting Guide that summarizes principles, interventions, and strategies to reduce healthcare associated infections. Contains more than 60 short chapters on a variety of topics including antibiotic resistance. See for example chapter: The Operating Room with facts and suggested practices to avoid surgical site infections. The guide is also available in Spanish.
Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection (2017) Guideline. Evidence-based guideline for prevention of surgical site infections from CDC. See also related Prevention toolkits.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)

Resource Description
International ERS/ESICM/ESCMID/ALAT guidelines for the management of hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia Example guidelines giving recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HAP/VAP. By a panel of experts for the European Respiratory Society (ERS), European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), and Asociación Latinoamericana del Tórax (ALAT).
The ISID Guide to Infection Control in the Healthcare setting Guide that summarizes principles, interventions, and strategies to reduce healthcare associated infections. Contains more than 60 short chapters on a variety of topics including antibiotic resistance. See for example chapters on Pneumonia and Mechanical ventilation. The guide is also available in Spanish.

Central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI)

Resource Description
CLABSI – Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infections Information portal. CDC’s toolkit for the prevention of central line-associated blood stream infection.
The ISID Guide to Infection Control in the Healthcare setting Guide that summarizes principles, interventions, and strategies to reduce healthcare associated infections. Contains more than 60 short chapters on a variety of topics including antibiotic resistance. See for example chapter on Bloodstream infections with suggested practices (also considering under-resourced settings). The guide is also available in Spanish.

Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)

Resource Description
CAUTI – Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection Information portal. CDC’s toolkit for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection.
The ISID Guide to Infection Control in the Healthcare setting Guide that summarizes principles, interventions, and strategies to reduce healthcare associated infections. Contains more than 60 short chapters on a variety of topics including antibiotic resistance. See for example chapter on Hospital-Acquired Urinary Tract Infection. The guide is also available in Spanish.

More from "Interventions"

1.
International Society for Infectious Diseases - ISID. The ISID Guide to Infection Control in the Healthcare setting [Internet]. ISID - International Society for Infectious Diseases. [cited 2019 Jul 5]. Available from: https://www.isid.org/education/guide-to-infection-control-in-the-healthcare-setting/
1.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC. Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI) [Internet]. [cited 2018 Nov 26]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/hai/ca_uti/uti.html
1.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC. Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI) [Internet]. [cited 2018 Nov 26]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/hai/bsi/bsi.html
1.
World Health Organization - WHO. Global guidelines on the prevention of surgical site infection [Internet]. WHO. [cited 2017 Jan 30]. Available from: http://www.who.int/infection-prevention/publications/ssi-prevention-guidelines/en/
1.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC. Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection (2017) [Internet]. [cited 2017 May 16]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/ssi/index.html