Share the article

Raise Awareness  –  Education and training

Training manuals and courses

A variety of online courses, training manuals, and teaching modules are available that address different issues related to antibiotics and antibiotic resistance.

A selection of available open source materials can be found below.

Resources have been divided into the following tables:

  • General
  • Food production
  • Infection prevention and control
  • Educating providers
  • Rational use/Stewardship

Selected Resources

General

Resource Description
Antibiotic Resistance: the Silent Tsunami This open online course on antibiotic resistance developed by ReAct and Uppsala University gives an overview on how misuse of antibiotics worldwide have lead to the rapid emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria and how to take action.
Gut Check: Exploring Your Microbiome A massive open online course (MOOC) giving a tour of the human gut and its microscopic inhabitants developed by the University of Colorado Boulder and University of Colorado System.
Education Modules Educational modules that can be helpful during a handwashing behavioral change program. Presented by the Global Handwashing Partnership.
Epidemics – the Dynamics of Infectious Diseases Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on understanding infectious diseases – what they are, how they spread, and how they can be prevented, including how antibiotic resistance evolves.
Antimicrobial resistance – theory and methods This Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) provides basic definitions and an overview of antimicrobials; their use, the emergence and spread of resistance including how bacteria become resistant and mechanisms of action. It covers methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and detection of specific resistance in the microbiological laboratories. It also shows how to use genomic analysis tools to detect resistance genes.

Food production

Resource Description
Antimicrobial Resistance Learning Site for Veterinarians Teaching modules on antimicrobial resistance designed for integration into existing veterinary school courses. The modules can also be used as stand-alone resources for continuing education for veterinarians, industry professionals or animal scientists.
Five keys to growing safer fruits and vegetables: promoting health by decreasing microbial contamination Training manual on how to grow safer crops, which has been developed to support food safety education of rural workers, by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Farm Biosecurity: Less diseases, better performance, and higher profits Teaching sessions (slide presentations) from FAO covering important biosecurity aspects in poultry farms.
Effective Livestock Production with Low Use of Antibiotics Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for livestock keepers and professionals in the livestock production sector in low-income countries. Learn how basic disease prevention and rational use of antibiotics can sustain or even increase the livestock production and limit the emergence of antibiotic resistance.
Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on antimicrobial resistance in the food chain. The course provides information on what antibiotics are, how they work and how resistance develops. It deals with antibiotic use both in health care and in farming and explains how antibiotics contaminate the environment.

Infection prevention and control

Resource Description
Patient Safety Curriculum Guide Multi-professional Edition A manual aimed at health care educators and students. It contains ready-to-teach, patient safety programmes that can be used as a whole or on a per topic basis. Topic 9 in part B: Infection Prevention and Control focuses on the prevention of health care associated infections (teaching slides can be found here). Available in Chinese, Czech, English, French, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Spanish.
Infection Prevention and Control: A guide for health professionals in low-resource settings Free online e-book for training in infection prevention and control in resource-limited settings.
Clean Care is Safer Care: Tools for training and education Training material from WHO on hand hygiene, including:

  • Hand hygiene training Films
  • Slides for education sessions for trainers and health care workers
  • Hand hygiene technical reference manual to train health care workers
Partnering to Heal Computer-based, video-simulation training program on infection control practices for health professionals, students, and patient advocates. The focus is on effective communication about infection control practices and ideas for creating a “culture of safety” in healthcare institutions to keep patients from getting sicker. Developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Educating providers

Resource Description
WHO Competency Framework for Health Workers’ Education and Training on Antimicrobial Resistance This framework from WHO outlines core and additional competencies for health workers in regards to antimicrobial resistance, and is a reference guide for academic institutions, educators, accreditation bodies, regulatory agencies and health policy- and decision-making authorities. The purpose is to guide the education and training of health workers.
How to educate prescribers in antimicrobial stewardship practices A description of the needs for education. professional curriculums should include principles of microbiology, infectious diseases and clinical pharmacology, with emphasis on the principles of prudent prescribing.
Understanding and Responding to Pharmaceutical Promotion: A Practical Guide WHO and HAI have developed this manual to assist teachers and health care professionals in teaching medical and pharmacy students about pharmaceutical promotion, and how to cope with pressure from the pharmaceutical industry.
Drug and Therapeutics Committee Training Course. Participant’s Guide – All Sessions Example training course for a Drug and Therapeutics Committee. Contains instructions and examples cases for discussions (but not answers). Covers for example medicine selection for the formulary, identification of medicine use problems, and the promotion of interventions to improve medicine use. WHO/MSH/USAIDS.
Understanding and changing human behaviour-antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics.
Strengthening Pre-service Pharmacy Training on Rational Medicine Use and Antimicrobial Resistance This technical report describes the innovative design of the Rational Medicine Use and AMR theme within the Pharmacy Practice curriculum, illustrates the more engaged teaching-learning experience and provides concrete materials developed for this purpose.
Behavioral Approach to Appropriate Antimicrobial Prescribing in Hospitals Article describing an intervention on appropriate antibiotic prescribing grounded in behavioral theory. A root cause analysis of inappropriate prescribing was performed, and then prescribers were offered a free choice of how to improve their antimicrobial prescribing based on this analysis. The Root Cause Analysis Interview Topic List can be found in supplemental content.
Theory at a Glance: A Guide For Health Promotion Practice This guide describes influential theories of health-related behaviours, process of shaping behaviour, and the effects of community and environmental factors on behaviour.
How to change practice: Understand, identify and overcome barriers to change A guide giving practical advice on how to encourage healthcare professionals to change their practice in line with the latest guidance, provided by the AIDS Education and Training Center (AETC) Program.
National Quality Partners Playbook: Antibiotic Stewardship in Acute Care The Playbook helps hospitals and health systems strengthen existing antibiotic stewardship initiatives or create antibiotic stewardship programs from the ground up. It is a complementary resource to CDC’s Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs. The Playbook offers practical strategies for implementing antibiotic stewardship programs in hospitals.

Rational use/stewardship

Resource Description
Antimicrobial Stewardship: A competency-based approach A self-paced, 8 hour course on OpenWHO. Uses case-based examples to highlight how antimicrobial stewardship principles can be applied to common clinical scenarios. Course divided into 14 modules: Module A-E covers foundational clinical knowledge necessary to use antimicrobials wisely, and module F-N how clinicians can incorporate this knowledge in their management of patients with common infection.
Antimicrobial Stewardship: From Principles to Practice  Comprehensive eBook from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) that covers for example (register for access):

  • Challenges posed by antimicrobial resistance
  • Tools for setting up stewardship programs and making use of existing programs
  • Resources to apply the principles of stewardship to a wide range of professions, and areas
  • Support for work in LMICs
  • An interactive multimedia platform
Antimicrobial Stewardship: Managing Antibiotic Resistance A massive open online course (MOOC) on antimicrobial stewardship developed by the University of Dundee and the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy BSAC, UK. Available in English, Mandarin, Spanish, and Russian. More info and course evaluation has been published.
Antimicrobial Stewardship Curriculum for Medical Students Curriculum created for U.S. medical students by Wake Forest School of Medicine in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) to increase understanding of antibiotic resistance and how to prevent and control it.
Clinical Antibiotic Stewardship for South Africa This course in Clinical Antibiotic Stewardship developed by the South African Antibiotic Stewardship Programme (SAASP) includes the principles of antibiotic prescribing and an approach to common clinical problems.

More from "Education and training"

1.
Effective Livestock Production with Low Use of Antibiotics [Internet]. FutureLearn. [cited 2019 Feb 25]. Available from: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/effective-livestock-production
1.
University of Minnesota, Michigan State University. Antimicrobial resistance learning site [Internet]. Antimicrobial Resistance Learning Site. Available from: https://amrls.umn.edu/antimicrobial-resistance-learning-site
1.
British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - BSAC. Antimicrobial Stewardship – From Principles to Practice e-book [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2018 Nov 27]. Available from: http://bsac.org.uk/antimicrobial-stewardship-from-principles-to-practice-e-book/
1.
Ohl C, Borlandc H. An Antimicrobial Stewardship Curriculum for Medical Students [Internet]. Wake Forest School of Medicine. 2014 [cited 2014 Aug 20]. Available from: https://school.wakehealth.edu/Departments/Internal-Medicine/Infectious-Diseases/CAUSE/Antimicrobial-Stewardship-Curriculum#View%20The%20Curriculum
1.
World Health Organization - WHO. WHO Competency Framework for Health Workers’ Education and Training on Antimicrobial Resistance [Internet]. WHO. 2018 [cited 2018 Jun 30]. Available from: http://www.who.int/hrh/resources/WHO-HIS-HWF-AMR-2018.1/en/
1.
ReAct - Action on antibiotic resistance, Uppsala University. Antibiotic Resistance: the Silent Tsunami [Internet]. ReAct. 2016. Available from: https://www.reactgroup.org/antibiotic-resistance/course-antibiotic-resistance-the-silent-tsunami/
1.
World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Antimicrobial Stewardship: A competency-based approach [Internet]. OpenWHO. [cited 2018 Jan 15]. Available from: https://openwho.org/courses/AMR-competency
1.
World Health Organization - WHO. Tools for training and education [Internet]. WHO - Clean Care is Safer Care. [cited 2017 Nov 17]. Available from: http://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/tools/training_education/en/
1.
Management Sciences for Health - MSH, World Health Organization - WHO, Submitted to the U.S. Agency for International Development by the Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus Program. Arlington, VA: Management Sciences for Health. Drug and Therapeutics Committee Training Course. [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2017 Nov 2]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js22115en/
1.
Sikkens JJ, Agtmael MA van, Peters EJG, Lettinga KD, Kuip M van der, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CMJE, et al. Behavioral Approach to Appropriate Antimicrobial Prescribing in Hospitals: The Dutch Unique Method for Antimicrobial Stewardship (DUMAS) Participatory Intervention Study. JAMA Intern Med [Internet]. 2017 Aug 1 [cited 2017 Oct 26];177(8):1130–8. Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2623529
1.
World Health Organization - WHO. Patient Safety Curriculum Guide Multi-professional Edition [Internet]. World Health Organization; 2011 [cited 2014 Aug 19]. Available from: http://www.who.int/patientsafety/education/mp_curriculum_guide/en/
1.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence - NICE. How to change practice: Understand, identify and overcome barriers to change [Internet]. [cited 2017 May 15]. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/Media/Default/About/what-we-do/Into-practice/Support-for-service-improvement-and-audit/How-to-change-practice-barriers-to-change.pdf
1.
Dr. Dramowski A. Infection Prevention and Control: A guide for healthcare workers in low-resource settings [Internet]. Bettercare. [cited 2017 Apr 5]. Available from: http://bettercare.co.za/learning-programmes/infection-prevention-and-control/
1.
World Health Organization - WHO, Health Action International - HAI. Understanding and Responding to Pharmaceutical Promotion: A Practical Guide [Internet]. [cited 2017 Mar 20]. Available from: http://haiweb.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Pharma-Promotion-Guide-English.pdf
1.
FutureLearn. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain [Internet]. FutureLearn. [cited 2017 Feb 17]. Available from: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/antimicrobial-resistance-food-chain
1.
National Quality Forum. National Quality Partners Playbook: Antibiotic Stewardship in Acute Care [Internet]. National Quality Forum; 2016 [cited 2016 May 26]. Available from: http://www.qualityforum.org/Publications/2016/05/Antibiotic_Stewardship_Playbook.aspx?utm_source=external&utm_medium=link&utm_term=ABX&utm_content=Playbook&utm_campaign=ABX
1.
UNICEF, The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing. Education Modules [Internet]. Available from: http://globalhandwashing.org/learn/education-modules/
1.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - FAO. Farm Biosecurity: Less diseases, better performance, and higher profits [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2016 Aug 17]. Available from: http://www.fao.org/avianflu/en/news/farm_biosec.html
1.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. Theory at a Glance: A Guide For Health Promotion Practice [Internet]. 2nd Edition. Rockville, MD; 2005 [cited 2015 Jul 22]. Available from: http://sbccimplementationkits.org/demandrmnch/ikitresources/theory-at-a-glance-a-guide-for-health-promotion-practice-second-edition/
1.
Coursera. Antimicrobial resistance - theory and methods - Technical University of Denmark (DTU) [Internet]. Coursera. [cited 2016 Jun 10]. Available from: https://www.coursera.org/learn/antimicrobial-resistance
1.
Joshi M, Ludman M, Kibuule M, Rennie T, Lates J, Knott M, et al. Strengthening Pre-service Pharmacy Training on Rational Medicine Use and Antimicrobial Resistance [Internet]. Management Sciences for Health; 2014 [cited 2016 Apr 12]. Available from: http://siapsprogram.org/publication/strengthening-pre-service-pharmacy-training-on-rational-medicine-use-and-antimicrobial-resistance/
1.
World Health Organization - WHO. Five keys to growing safer fruits and vegetables promoting health by decreasing microbial contamination. [Internet]. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2012 [cited 2015 Apr 27]. Available from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/5keys_growing_safer/en/
1.
Pennsylvania State University. Epidemics - the Dynamics of Infectious Diseases - The Pennsylvania State University [Internet]. Coursera. [cited 2016 Jan 7]. Available from: https://www.coursera.org/learn/epidemics
1.
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Partnering to Heal [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2016 Jan 7]. Available from: http://health.gov/hcq/training-partnering-to-heal.asp
1.
University of Dundee, The British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - BSAC. Antimicrobial Stewardship: Managing Antibiotic Resistance [Internet]. FutureLearn. [cited 2015 Aug 24]. Available from: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/antimicrobial-stewardship
1.
Stålsby Lundborg C, Tamhankar AJ. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour. Ups J Med Sci [Internet]. 2014 May;119(2):125–33. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034549/
1.
Coursera. Gut Check: Exploring Your Microbiome [Internet]. Gut Check: Exploring Your Microbiome. [cited 2014 Oct 15]. Available from: https://www.coursera.org/course/microbiome
1.
Pulcini C, Gyssens IC. How to educate prescribers in antimicrobial stewardship practices. Virulence [Internet]. 2013 Feb 15;4(2):192–202. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23361336